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SSNe24 7-day plot

Note: This plot is updated hourly. See below for a data-use summary.

Track the status of the solar-cycle for the past 12 months or for Cycles 23-25.

If you are looking for the observed sunspot number derived from optical observations of the sun, you've been miss-routed.
This link provides a comparison of the effective SSN shown on this page to the observed solar sunspot number.

These plots provide a look at the global behavior of the ionospheric F2 layer over the past week as measured by the NWRA effective sunspot number (SSNe) calculated from current observations. The upper panel shows the SSNe variation, the third panel provides a goodness-of-fit metric (described below), and the lower panel gives the total number of foF2 observations in each SSNe calculation. In all three panels the two black curves use data from observatories between -50 and +50 degrees geomagnetic latitude (heavy curve uses data collected from the previous 24 hours; light curve the previous 6 hours). The heavy green and red curves use data from observatories between -50 and -15, and +15 and +50 degrees geomagnetic latitude, respectively, collected during the previous 24 hours. (Note that the quasi- diurnal variation in the 6 hour SSNe values is primarily due to unequal longitude spacing of the foF2 stations from which the SSNe are being calculated.)

The second panel shows the provisional (quicklook) Kp index from GFZ Potsdam. This is provided to assess the impact of geomagnetic activity on SSNe.

Also shown on the upper panel is the long-term predicted smoothed sunspot number as provided by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. The heavy dash line is the expected value from the prediction, and the two light dashed lines are the upper- and lower-bounds on the expected value.

The goodness-of-fit metric shown in the middle panel is the RMS percent difference between the foF2 observations used in the SSNe calculations and the model foF2 values generated using the SSNe in the URSI-88 foF2 model. It generally runs around 15%, with the largest departures occurring during major geomagnetic disturbances

The following table summarizes the observations used in calculating the most recent SSNe value. The X entry for a particular station/time indicates there was an foF2 value available and it was used in the SSNe calculation. A - entry indicates that an foF2 value was available, but it was excluded from the SSNe calculation (it was identified as an outlier point). The bar (|) symbol along the time axis of the table indicates the latest-data time (i.e., data to the right of this column are from the previous day). The SH and NH tags on the far right of each line indicates which stations were included in the southern- and northern-hemisphere SSNe calculations, respectively.

Date: 20200120                          000000000011111111112222    
GMLAT  Station              Used  Rej   012345678901234567890123    
-----  -------------------  ---- ----  +-----------------------|+   
 49.7  Boulder                22   00  |XX X XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX| NH
 49.0  Wallops Island         24   00  |XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX| NH
 46.8  Dourbes                23   01  |XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX| NH
 46.3  Pruhonice              23   01  |XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX| NH
 42.1  Eglin AFB              23   00  |XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXX| NH
 38.7  Wakkanai               14   01  |XXXXXXXXX    X  X  - XXX| NH
 36.8  Rome                   02   00  |                      XX| NH
 35.4  San Vito               23   00  |XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXX| NH
 30.3  Ramey                  23   01  |X-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX| NH
 29.9  San Juan               12   00  |  XX XX    XX XXX  X  XX| NH
 29.4  Jeju                   10   00  | XXXX  X     X X  XXX  || NH
 28.7  Kokubunji              12   00  |X    XXXXXXXXX        XX| NH
 24.0  Yamagawa               16   00  |XXXXX  XXXXX XX XX    XX| NH
 18.9  Okinawa                14   00  |XXXXXX XX  XX      XX XX| NH
  0.9  Jicamarca              10   00  |XXXXX       XXX   XX   ||   
-17.0  Ascension Island       20   00  |XXXXX XXXXX   XXXXXXXXXX| SH
-22.3  Darwin                 21   00  |XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X  XXX| SH
-23.1  Cocos Island           19   00  |XXXXXXX X  XXXX  XXXXXXX| SH
-25.3  Nuie                   11   00  | X X XX  XXX       XXX X| SH
-36.5  Norfolk Island         15   00  |   XX XXXX XXXXXXX   XX|| SH
-36.9  Brisbane               14   00  |   XX X XXX  XX  XXXXXX|| SH
-42.2  Hermanos               20   00  |XXXXXXXXXX  XX XXXXXXX X| SH
-44.7  Camden                 12   00  |     X    XXXX XXX XXX X| SH
-45.6  Perth                  19   00  |XX XX X XXXXXX XXXXXXXX|| SH
-46.0  Canberra               09   00  |        X  X X XX X XXX|| SH
-------------------  -----  ---- ----  +-----------------------|+   
NH  :   # Expected / # Received / Percent:  744 / 245 /  32.9
ALL :   # Expected / # Received / Percent: 1248 / 415 /  33.3
SH  :   # Expected / # Received / Percent:  408 / 160 /  39.2

If you would like to get a feel for how effective these effective-SSN indices are, foF2 plots comparing the observations with model foF2 values calculated using the NWRA SSNe and the SWS T indexes are available. There is a one-day delay between the latest SSNe values available and these plots to permit more data to arrive at the NOAA SWPC for comparison.

Boulder foF2 Plot Daily foF2 Comparison Plots

The foF2 data used in these calculations were obtained from the NOAA SWPC.

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